原标题:高中英语语法归纳与精练

根据以去英语取得高分同学的经验和奇速英语辅导名师的提出,他们都相反认为英语语法和词汇是学益、考益英语的主要基础,其实完形填空是对语法、词汇的综相符考查,但更关键的是学益此片面有助于对英语句子组织的分析和理解,有助于弟子掌握变通众变的句式,云云不光有助于弟子做益浏览理解,而且有助于弟子做益英译汉,写益作文。因此,吾们在此编写了相关重点语法的知识点,并将一连登出,同时将刊登一些试题。期待同学们仔细掌握,切不走因不靠它们而无视了对英语基础知识的掌握。

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(一)情态动词

一.情态动词的现在完善式的用法

情态动词现在完善式主要有两个功能:外示已经发生的情况和外示虚拟语气。在这两个方面must/mustn’t,;can/cann’t;need/needn’t;may/mayn’t;might/mightn’t;should/shouldn’t;

ougtht等情态动词+完善式外示的有趣是有肯定区别的

1.外示已经发生的情况。

1)must have 以前分词,外示对已发生情况的肯定推想,译为“(昨天)肯定……”。如:

My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically:” Are you feeling all right?”

[A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be

(答案为C)

2)can’t / couldn’t have 以前分词,外示对已发生情况的否定推想,译为“(昨天)肯定没……”。如:

Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

[A] couldn’t have received [B] ought to have received

[C] has received [D] shouldn’t have received

(答案为A)

3)may / might have 以前分词,外示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很幼的推想,或原形上根本没发生,译为“约略……”。如:

At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.

2.外示虚拟语气。

1) needn’t have 以前分词,外示做了不消做的事,相等于”didn’t need to do”,译为“其实没必要……”。如:

You needn’t have come over yourself.

As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally.

[A] needn’t dress up [B]did not need have dressed up

[C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up

(异国必要穿的那么正式,表现是谈话者的提出,实际效果是否真的穿的很正式异国确定,答案为D)

2)should have 以前分词,外示答该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本答该……”should not have以前分词外示本不该该做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不该该……”。如:

I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

吾正本答该事先仔细地把每件事情规划的很益,但实际上作者照样异国规划益,以至做事异国完善。

3) ought to have 以前分词,外示行为按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,与should 的完善式含义相通。如:

The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke .

4) could have 以前分词,外示以前正本可以做但却未做,译为“十足可以……”。这点与ought/should/ have 以前分词用法相通。如:

What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

5) may/ might have 以前分词,外示以前可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)约略会……”。如:

It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.

二.几个情态动词常考的句型:

1).may/might (just) as well “可以,最益”,与had better相近;

Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

既然航班已经作废了,你可以乘火车吧。相等于you had better go by train。

2) .cannot / can’t…too …“越……越益,怎么也不太甚”。仔细这个句型的变体cannot…over….如:

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越仔细越益。

The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be over emphasized .

3) .usedn’t 或did’t use to 为used to (do) 的否定式。

4).should 除了“答该”一层有趣外,考研大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的有趣。如:I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that. 吾无法想象他竟然云云做。

三.情态动词被动相关的主动外达法

1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以外示被动意义。

Your hair wants cutting

The book is worth reading

The floor requires washing.

2.need既可以用need to be done 也可以操纵need doing ,两栽样式都外达被动的意义

The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted.

The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired.

(二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级

一.形容词的修饰与位置

清淡来说,从构词法角度来望,后缀”ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly’末了的词是形容词而不是副词,这点要仔细;形容词清淡可以在句子中做定语,外语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做外语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有肯定的稀奇性要引首行家的仔细,下面做了一下归纳:

1 以-ly末了的是形容词而不是副词:

costly 腾贵的 lonely 孤独的

deadly 物化清淡的 lively 天真的

friendly 友益的 silly 傻气的

kindly 炎忱肠的 likely 可能的

leisurely 安详的 ugly 长得丑的

brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的

earthly 阳世的

2 只作以“a”起头的许众形容词只能做外语:

afraid 勇敢的 alike 相象的

awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的

alive 在世的 ashamed 汗颜的

asleep 睡着的 aware 认识到的、察觉到的

well 健康的 content 舒坦的

unable 无能的

3 只作前置定语的形容词

earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的

golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 内里的

silken 丝清淡的 monthly 每月的 outer 表面的

wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的

woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过

only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 正好的

little 幼的 live 活的

4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,仔细用做系动词时,请求形容词做外语:

remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。

如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.

二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级

1. 考比较级时,考生答把握:

1)形容词和副词比较级的样式是否和比较连词对答展现,即是否相符原级比较及比较级的组织。如:

Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual performance.

[A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as

在这边as good as 比较连词与better than比较连词同时显眼前候,不及省略任何一个介词。答案为A

On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说比较要具有可比性。如:

The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half .

[A] of last year’s [B]those of last year’s

[C]of those of last year [D] that of last year’s

(前后相比的答该是今年和去年注册参添的人数“the number of”故代替它的答该是单数指使代词“that”,而不及选择B,those是指代participants,不是同类对比,答案为D。

Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.

3)比较级与倍数词相关及其位置

原级组织中可插入外达倍数的词,外示为“为….若干倍”,当与有外示倍数比较的词在一首时候等,他们的位置是,倍数词 as…as…,或倍数词 more…than…,但again清淡放在原级词之后,即 “as 原级+again as”.如:

Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile accidents.

[A] seven more times [B] seven times more

[C] over seven times [D] seven times

(答案为B)

“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.”

[A] twice so much [B] twice as much

[C] as much twice [D] so much twice

(答案为B)

My uncle is as old again as I am

4)下列词和短语不消比较级样式却外示比较概念:

inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如:

Their watch is to all the other watches on the market.

[A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial

(答案为A)

Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter.

5)“比较级+and 比较级”或“more and more/less and less 原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+比较级”组织外示“越来越……”的有趣,与这类组织搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。前线两栽情况更众地出现在进走时态中,仔细的是这三栽情况引导的比较级后面都不必要用than.如:

Things are getting worse and worse.

As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.

Her health was becoming daily worse

The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.

6)比较级前线可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以强化语气,外示“更添”的有趣。如

Today it is even colder than yesterday

I have yet more exciting news for you

7) 相关比较级的稀奇句型:

A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说……

The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

[A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or

人口添长的主要因为与其说是由于出生率的挑高,还不如说是由于医疗的挺进带来的物化亡率消极的效果。答案为B

B) no/not any more…than…两者相通都不……

The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

[A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more

(心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑限制。答案为D)

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink.

[A] much more than [B] no more than

[C] no less than [D] any more than

(答案为D)

C)no/not any less…than…两者相通,都……仔细基本上与no/not any more…than有趣相逆

She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐相通时兴

D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装组织)

Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere.

[A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is

(答案为C)

2.最高级样式答仔细的题目:

1)最高级比较周围用介词in, over, of, among。

in, (all) over用于在某一周围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world.

of, among用于在联相符群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.

仔细:among…相等于one of …,不说among all…。这一点考生答与汉语外达区别开来

如:

all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

[A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B]

2)比较级样式外示最高级意义时,比较对象的周围行使:

any other 单数名词

the other 复数名词

the others

anyone/anything else

上述词是用业将比较级组织改变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不走遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑紊乱的舛讹。如不及说:John runs faster than anyone.仔细与汉语外达的迥异。

3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,有趣相等于very,用法区分单复数,但不及用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要仔细与 “the 形容词最高级+of 名词”的组织外示的最高级的区别,如:

He spoke in the warmest of voices

They have been most kind to me

Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

Chinese is the most difficult of language

Chinese is a most difficult language

三.不消比较级和最高级的形容词:

1)外示颜色的有:white, black

2)外示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level

3)外示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

4)外示状态作外语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike

5)外示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

6)外示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite

7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

四.平走组织与比较级

平走组织许众情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者黑含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

大无数情况下平走组织都是具有肯定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor…..

平走组织测试时候仔细以下几点:

1.仔细比较组织中相比较的内容在语法样式上是否相通。如:

It is better to die one’s feet than .

[A]living on one’s knees [B]live on one’s knees

[C]on one’s knees [D]to live on one’s knees

(答案为D)

Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平走组织。

1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在组织上连接两个语法样式相通的成分。如:

We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.

[A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than

答案为A

For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

[A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let’s say

(答案为B)

2)倘若平走的两个成分在样式上是介词短语,而且介词相通,清淡说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

(三)代词及其指代相反

一.代词的指代

1.that的指代作用

that指代不走数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面清淡跟有修饰语,如出现在比较组织中的that of。如

Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这边that指代前线的the role。

No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

2.one的指代作用

one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:

A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

[A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this

答案为[C]

3.do的替代作用。

do代替动词,仔细数和时态的变化。如:

For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.

二.代词指代相反题目

代词指代相反是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否相反,或者所照答的名词词组在某些方面保持相反。

Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.

这边he指代前线的person。

It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

这边its指代前线的两人的friendship。

Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.

这边me必须用宾格样式。

代词指代相反必须仔细以下几个原则和规律:

1.邻近和挨近原则

由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)连接先走词时候,倘若两个先走词在数和性上保持相反,就用其响答的一向的人称代词;倘若两个先走词在数或性上纷歧致,人称代词清淡与邻近的先走词在数和性上保持相反。

Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.

Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination

If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink

2.当each, everyone, everybody, no one ,none ,anybody,定制橱柜 someone, somebody用作主语或主语的限制词时候,或者anything, nothing, something everything等不定代词作主语时候,其响答的代词清淡依照语法相反原则,采取单数样式。如:

Everybody talked at the top of his voice.

None of the boys can do it , can he?

Everything is ready, isn’t it”

3.当主语为复数样式,后跟each作同位语时,倘若each位于动词之前,其后的代词或响答的限制词用复数样式;倘若 each位于动词之后,其后的代词或响答的限制词用单数样式。如:

They each have two coats

we are each responsible for his own family

4.由and连接两个先走词,代词用复数

如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident

(三) 主谓相反题目

主谓相反是指主语与谓语在数上要相反。把握主谓相反题目,考生主要解决的是对迥异组织的主语单复数的认定,进而选择正当的谓语。解决主谓相反主要遵命三个原则:

语法相反原则

意义相反原则

就近相反原则

许众情况下答该综相符行使这三个原则来处理主谓相反,在迥异情况下可能行使三个原则中的迥异原则,详细行使哪栽原则答该视详细情况而定。总结如下:

一.谓语动词用单数的情况

1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如:

Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her.

To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.

2.外示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。

Two weeks was too long

Five times five makes twenty five

3.清淡用and连接的两个单词或短语做主语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用and连接的主语外示一个概念,谓语用单数:

law and order 法制 soap and water 胖皂水

a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉

the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 逆复尝试,一向摸索

horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月

bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落

如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe.

A. is B. are C. was d. were

答案:A。

4.外示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数样式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数样式

Linguistics is a branch of study on human language.

5.有些名词样式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意义相反原则动词用单数

The chaos was stopped by the police

The news is a great encouragement to us

A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend.

6.用and 连接的成份外示一个单一切念时候,动词谓语用单数样式

Bread and butter is our daily food

Time and tide waits for no man

二. 谓语用复数情况

1. 由and, both …and, 连接的并列主语,和both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动词清淡用复数样式。

Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.

2.集体名词police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth后常用复数样式的动词

The Chinese people are brave and hardworking

The cattle are grazing in the sunshine

3.当外示民族的词与冠词相符用当主语,谓语动词用复数样式

The Japanese were once very aggressive

4.某些形容词前线添定冠词外示一类人,做主语时候,谓语动词用复数

The rich are not always selfish

5.不走数名词作主语,其前有外示数目的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数

Three million tons of coal were exported that year

三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况

1. 就近相反原则

这栽情况下,谓语动词操纵单数照样复数取决于最挨近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这栽情况的主要由以下几栽可能:

1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 等连接的并列主语

Neither money nor fame has influence on me

Not only you but also he is wrong

2) 在倒装组织中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语相反

Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman.

Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.

Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facili

2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附添成分,谓语的数不受附添成分的影响照样与主语保持相反.本空间名为腾讯认证(蔡章兵主编QQ757722345)空间,本空间每天都有5篇旁边资源更新, 你只须 点击空间顶部“关注”就会收到每天更新的新闻。

Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations.

The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.

3.相关代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先走词相反。如:

Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.

There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.

4.一些外示数目的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复数,逆之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等

Two-thirds of people present are women

Lots of damage was caused by the fire

5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语外示的有趣和数,当外示团体时候,谓语动词就用单数,当强召集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等

The family is the basic unit of our society

The family were watching the TV

The audience was enormous

The audience were greatly moved at the words

6.某些固定组织中主语与谓语的数:

第一组:

a great many 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

a number of 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

the majority of 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

第二组;

the number of 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

each/every 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

neither/either of 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

one and a half 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

第三组;

more than one 可数名词单数 谓语用单数

many a 可数名词单数 谓语用单数

第四组;

the greater part of

a large proportion of

50% of

one third of

plenty of

the rest of

谓语的数与of 后面的名词相反

第五组;

(n)either…(n)or….

not only….. but also ……

not …..but ……

谓语的数与主语的第二片面(即(n)or/ but also/ but引导的后面片面)相反.

仔细比较:

More students than one have been referred to

More than one student is going to buy this book

(四)倒装组织

倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的平常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一片面移到主语之前。倒装是一栽修辞手腕,方针是为了强调。倒装分为片面倒装和通盘倒装,考试众为片面倒装。考生答掌握什么情况下必要倒装,并对倒装后的句子可能认出来,避免做题时候的盲现在和迷茫。

一. 用通盘倒装的情况

通盘倒装清淡是存在以下列副词起头的句子中,通盘倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前线:

1)出于修辞必要,外示倾向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on。如:

Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

Up went the plane

2)出于民俗用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如:

Now is your turn. There goes the bell.

Here is a ticket for you

There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work

仔细:here,there用于倒装组织时主语清淡为名词,倘若是人称代词则不必要倒装

“ where is the cup?” “Here it is!”

Here you are.

There he comes.

3)未必主语较长,为了使句子均衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要通盘倒装。这栽情况众出现在主系外组织中。如:

Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.

In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.

二. 采用片面倒装情况

片面倒装清淡是把句子谓语的一片面(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,组成片面倒装,而通盘倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前

1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要片面倒装,:

never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still less。如:

Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

注:1)倘若谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态添助动词do。如:

Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.

2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,仔细从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:

Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.

2.以only修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)起头的句子,句子的主谓要片面倒装:

only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。如:

Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion.

[A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can

3.以下列副词或短语起头的句子,句子的主谓要片面倒装:

often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time。如:

So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

[A]became the children [B]become the children

[C]had the children become [D]do the children become

4.比较从句的倒装:

as, than引导的比较从句中,倘若主语是名词短语且较长,频繁采用倒装组织(不倒装也可以)。仔细:这栽组织主语清淡为名词,倘若是代词则不倒装。如:

Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

Today’s electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.

Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

5.用于前线所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装

1) 肯定重复倒装用:so

They have got up, and so has jack

2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more

If you don’t agree to our plan, neither will they

6.“not only..but also”组织时,倘若not only 放在句首,则前半句but (also)句子后面不倒装

Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.

三. 稀奇的倒装组织

稀奇样式的倒装组织是指句子固然是倒装组织,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的必要,把强调片面移到句首,而其它片面挨次不必要改变,句子主谓不必要倒装。展现云云的情况有以下几栽可能:

1.让步从句的倒装。

1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装组织,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight

2).出现在句型be 主语 其他,come what may中。如:

While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

The business of each day selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

[A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为B)

3) no matter how(who…);however引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装组织,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:

No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting

However cold it is , he always goes swimming.

语法测试

1. She said that she __ much progress since she came here.

A. makes B. made C. have made D had made

2. “What’s the matter, Ali? You look sad."

“Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I my friends back home."

A. just thought B. have just been thinking

C. was just thinking D. have just thought

3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hundred words.

A. will be working B. worked

C. has been working D. will have worked

4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter.

A. has investigated B.investigates

C. will have investigated D. investigated

5. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30.

A.must have looked after B. would have to look after

C. had to look after D. should have looked after

6. four years since John left school.

A. They have been B. It is C. It was D. Those are

7.The car at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 4 o' clock this afternoon.

A. has gone B. has not gone

C will be going D. has been going

8. By the time you arrive in London, we __ in Europe for two weeks.

A. shall stay B. have stayed

C. will have stayed D. have been staying

9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed .

A. had produced B. have been produced

C. would have produced D. had been produced

10. The president __ the delegation at the airport but he was taken ill last night, so the vice-president is going to instead.

A. is to meet B. was to meet

C. has been to meet D. was to have met

语法测题答案与详解

1.(D) 根据时态相反的原则,间接引语(或宾语从句)的时态答与主句的时态相反。该句中said是曩以前因而that引导的宾语从句中也要用以前的某一栽时态,而从句中since引导的时间状语从句外明其答为完 成时态,故行使以前完善时态。

2.(C) 经过上下文可以鉴定Ali望首来很别扭很难受,是由于刚才在进走的事情所导致的,因而用以前进走时较益,故(C)是准确答案。

3,(C) 根据句意和时间状语for twenty minutes,可以判断这边答填入现在完善时态,现在完善进走时是现在完善时态的强调样式,并且选项中异国现在完善时态,因而(C)是准确答案。

4.(A) 句不料明委员会是在调查事件之后才会做出决定,调查答发生在决定之前,因而行使异日完善时态,但是在英语中,时间条件状语从句中的异日完善时态是由现在完善时来外示的,因而准确答案是(A)。

5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义望,(C)项是唯一的准确答案。Carey异国参添晚会,因为是给她姐姐照望幼孩子。而(A)和(D)外示对以前发生的事情根据客不悦目情况作出主不悦目揣摸:(A)作“准是望孩子了”讲;(D)作 “本答该望孩子”讲,都偏差,而(B)外示行为发生在以前的异日,也偏差,因而只有(C)准确。

6.(B) 这是一个固定组织(或句型)。本句也可说在"Four years have passed since John left school.”或“has been four years sinceJohn left schoo1.’’

7,(C) until引导的时间状语从句用了清淡现在时外示异日的有趣,主句因此必须用清淡异日时与之呼答,口语中常用异日进走时代替清淡异日时外示意料即将发生或肯定发生的事,也可外示某件事已经决定了。本句十足可以用will go 因此,准确答案是(C)。 •

8.(C) by the time引导的时间状语从句中若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用异日完善时;若谓语动词用曩以前,则主句要用以前完善时,未必也可以用以前异日完善时。云云,本道题方针准确答案是(C)。

9.(D) 有详细外示以前某暂时间段内业已发生的事件的时间状语,句子答该用以前完善时。

10.(B) 由第一个句子中的but引导的转变句中所用的曩以前,可以判断总统本要在机场接见代外团,外示计划要做某事在英语中可以用be 动词不定式来外达,故准确答案是B)。

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